The Bosnian pyramid complex is a pseudoarchaeological notion to explain the formation of a cluster of natural hills in the area of Visoko in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since 2005, Semir Osmanagić, also known as Sam Osmanagić, a Bosnian American businessman now based in Houston, Texas, has claimed that these hills are the largest human-made ancient pyramids on Earth. His claims have been overwhelmingly refuted by scientists but he has proceeded to promote the area as a tourist attraction.
Direct study of the site by geologists, archaeologists, and other scientists have demonstrated that the hills are natural formations known as flatirons and that there is no evidence that they were shaped by human construction. The European Association of Archaeologists has condemned the so-called ‘Bosnian pyramids’ as a “cruel hoax;” along with various other scholars, they are also concerned about damage being done to genuine archaeological and paleontological sites: a medieval Bosnian castle, Roman fortifications, and some even more ancient remains. Osmanagić initiated excavations in 2006 and has since reshaped one of the hills, making it look like a stepped pyramid. The academic community has called for the government to end funding of excavations and disruption of the site because of the damage to true archaeological resources.
Many scholars have noted that the claims have been used for serious ideological, political and economic gains by various factions in Bosnia. Although Osmanagić’s claims have been completely disproved by the scientific community, the Visoko area in recent years has attracted pseudoscience enthusiasts; the so-called Bosnian pyramids and the Ravne tunnels have been morphed into “New Age pilgrimage sites.” By June 2016, Osmanagić had completed an “archeological park” at one of the hills, where he attracts volunteers who are constructing botanical gardens; meditation sessions have been held at the site. It has been noted that tourist traffic has aided the economy of the city of Visoko, located near the front of the war that destroyed so much of the country in the late 20th century. As of 2017, Osmanagić continued to make alterations to the hills and add to his marketing about them. His work at the time was based on private funding.