The Roman bridge across the Carrión river was replaced by the medieval one of three arches: the old section of the city is on the left bank, the modern suburban development is on the right bank: it seems likely that the first inhabitants settled on the right bank, and later moved to the left bank—set on higher ground—due to frequent flooding.Crypt of Saint Antoninus, Cathedral of Palencia
La Olmeda Roman Villa (Villa Romana de La Olmeda) is a well-preserved 4th century AD house. With 27 rooms and 3,000 square metres of space, it is best known for its mosaics, the most important of which depict great mythological scenes and can be found in its main hall. Several of the rooms in the villa also contain the remains of the Roman hypocausts. In addition to the main building, the villa site is surrounded by other Roman ruins such as numerous burial sites and a set of thermal baths.
The old city walls were more than 10 meters high and can still be traced; the alamedas or promenades along them were laid out in 1778. The flamboyant Gothic Cathedral, built from 1321 to 1504 and dedicated to San Antolín, stands over a low vaulted Visigothic crypt; its museum contains a number of important works of art, including a retablo of twelve panels by Juan de Flandes, court painter to Queen Isabella I of Castile. The Archeological Museum contains Celtiberian ceramics.
Palencia is also famous for the 13th-century church of San Miguel, the San Francisco church. The Calle Mayor (High Street), is a pedestrian, 900-metres long street where many excellent examples of the 18th, 19th and early 20th-century architecture can be seen.
Thirteen kilometres south of the city, in the village of Baños de Cerrato, is the oldest church on the peninsula, a 7th-century basilica dedicated to Saint John and built by the Visigoth King Reccaswinth (died 672). The Plaza de toros de Palencia, a 10,000-capacity bullring, is located in Palencia. It opened in 1976